Obras em condomínio: como acionar o construtor em caso de erros?

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Quando se fala a respeito de obras em condomínio, é muito comum que os moradores e o síndico se preocupem com as reformas dos apartamentos, que precisam seguir regras específicas para não causar danos à estrutura ou incômodos aos condôminos, em desacordo com os parâmetros previstos na convenção.

Porém, muitas vezes as obras são feitas nas áreas comuns e acabam trazendo diversas dúvidas, principalmente com relação à autorização da reforma e como agir caso o serviço não seja entregue de acordo com o contratado.

Você sabe como acionar o construtor em caso de problemas na obra? Continue a leitura deste post para saber quais são as regras para reformas em condomínio e o que fazer diante de erros!

Quais são as regras referentes às obras em condomínio?

Para fazer obras no condomínio, é preciso observar algumas regras previstas na legislação. No entanto, as normas sobre a aprovação e o pagamento variam de acordo com a sua classificação. Veja como funciona!

Necessárias

As obras necessárias são aquelas fundamentais para o pleno funcionamento do condomínio e para a manutenção das condições de habitação e de utilização dos espaços comuns pelos moradores. Reformas para consertar problemas estruturais ou para adequar a edificação às normas de acessibilidade são exemplos recorrentes.

Nesses casos, a obra pode ser feita pelo síndico independentemente de autorização dos moradores, tendo em vista que ela é essencial. Contudo, caso elas tenham custos elevados e a obra precise ser feita com urgência, os condôminos devem ser comunicados imediatamente.

Caso a obra não seja urgente e tenha custos muito elevados, é preciso de aprovação em assembleia, que será convocada em caráter especial pelo condomínio. Além disso, se o síndico não realizar as obras necessárias, o condômino pode tomar a iniciativa e terá direito ao reembolso dos valores.

Úteis

São consideradas úteis as obras que devem ser feitas para aumentar a utilidade ou facilitar o uso dos espaços do condomínio. Alguns exemplos são a cobertura da garagem ou a construção de áreas de uso comum, como uma churrasqueira na área de festas.

O síndico deve convocar uma assembleia para apresentar a proposta e a obra precisa ser aprovada pela maioria dos condôminos. Porém, se a intervenção for a construção de outro pavimento ou de outro bloco para unidades imobiliárias, a aprovação precisa ser unânime.

Voluptuárias

Essas intervenções são aquelas que têm objetivos ligados à estética ou ao lazer, não sendo realmente essenciais ao condomínio, como a troca da cor da fachada ou a decoração de espaços de uso comum. Nesse caso, para que possam ser realizadas as obras, é preciso convocar assembleia e ter a aprovação de 2/3 dos condôminos.

Apesar da previsão legal, nem sempre é fácil classificar corretamente o tipo de obra. Portanto, sempre que surgirem dúvidas, é importante consultar um advogado especializado para verificar as regras aplicáveis e assegurar a utilização dos procedimentos corretos.

O que fazer ao identificar erros na construção?

Infelizmente, após a conclusão das obras, o síndico ou os moradores podem se deparar com problemas na construção. Nessas horas, é fundamental saber como agir para garantir o cumprimento do contrato e os direitos do condomínio.

Antes de tudo, é preciso investir na prevenção: contrate profissionais de confiança — engenheiros ou arquitetos — para desenvolver o projeto e, antes de fechar o contrato, consulte diversos orçamentos para verificar a média dos valores.

Tenha atenção, também, aos materiais utilizados e à mão de obra. Os profissionais devem ter experiência nos serviços. Não esqueça de verificar se é preciso autorização da construtora responsável pelo empreendimento antes de fazer alterações. Caso contrário, as obras serão irregulares.

Verifique a garantia

Os contratos costumam ter uma cláusula especificando a garantia em relação ao serviço. De acordo com o Código de Defesa do Consumidor (CDC) e com a jurisprudência (decisões judiciais sobre o tema), esse prazo deve ser de, pelo menos, 5 anos para os defeitos da construção, ou seja, os problemas que podem afetar a saúde ou a segurança dos moradores.

Para os casos de vícios aparentes, como falhas na pintura ou na colocação do piso, o prazo é de 90 dias a partir da entrega da obra. Se for um vício oculto, como infiltrações ou vazamentos de água, que só são percebidos com o uso, o prazo é o mesmo, mas contará a partir da identificação do problema.

Portanto, se surgir um problema em relação à obra dentro do prazo previsto no contrato ou na legislação, é importante notificar a construtora dentro do período da garantia para que ela tome as medidas cabíveis.

Notifique o construtor

Se surgir algum problema na obra durante a garantia, é fundamental notificar a construtora dentro dos prazos previstos, para que ela tome as medidas cabíveis. O ideal é redigir um documento detalhando o problema e enviá-lo com aviso de recebimento ou outra forma de comprovar a ciência sobre o problema.

Aqui, é importante estar preparado para negociar. Muitas vezes, as empresas apresentam justificativas ou tentam entrar em um acordo sobre os termos para resolver a situação, talvez recorrendo a uma solicitação de prazo para a execução dos reparos.

Ajuíze uma ação judicial

Se o construtor não solucionar o problema, é preciso entrar com uma ação judicial para solicitar o cumprimento do contrato e outros direitos que possam existir, como ressarcimento de valores ou pagamento de indenização.

Nessas situações, o apoio de um advogado é fundamental para verificar a responsabilidade do construtor e identificar a ação cabível para defender os interesses do condomínio.

Qual a importância da consultoria jurídica nesses casos?

As obras em condomínio exigem o cumprimento de diversas regras, a fim de evitar irregularidades e problemas que podem se tornar responsabilidade do síndico. Nesse caso, o apoio jurídico tem o objetivo de assegurar que todos os requisitos legais sejam observados antes de iniciar a reforma.

Em caso de problemas na construção, nem sempre é fácil saber quais são as regras aplicáveis em relação à responsabilidade do construtor ou identificar as medidas cabíveis. Assim a consultoria jurídica é fundamental para que o advogado analise o contrato e os resultados do serviço, para avaliar as soluções adequadas.

Se for necessário, ele elaborará a notificação extrajudicial que será entregue ao construtor e prestará auxílio durante a negociação. Caso seja preciso, o profissional já terá conhecimento do caso para ingressar com a ação judicial cabível, com o objetivo de garantir todos os direitos do condomínio.

Apesar de exigir a aplicação de diversas normas, as obras em condomínio podem ser simplificadas com o auxílio profissional. Além disso, caso surja algum problema, o advogado é o profissional indicado para ajudar na busca pela solução ideal.

Se você gostou deste conteúdo e está em busca de uma consultoria jurídica de qualidade, entre em contato conosco e conheça as soluções da Falleiros Advocacia para o seu condomínio!

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